Friday, November 13, 2015

Schefflera digitata effective against Athlete's Foot


I can confirm from personal experimentation on many occasions that the New Zealand native plant Schefflera digitata (Patate, Pate, Seven Finger) is extremely effective against athlete's foot.

I just put some leaves in a blender with water, then immediately applied the water to the infected skin with an artist's paint brush. The itching stopped almost immediately. In my opinion it is more effective, especially quicker, than treatment obtained from a chemist. I then kept the juice in the fridge, it remained effective for many months, perhaps more than six months. The long term solution to the problem, however, was to stop wearing a particular pair of old shoes which I used for going into the bush, now I go barefoot, much better.

It also worked against an ear infection, though again, the permanent, simpler solution was avoiding the cause, in this case keeping my ears above water when washing hair.

It was reported in 1979 that the leaves contain falcarindiol, known to be effective against "common dermatophyte fungi" (1) including athlete's foot and ringworm. It is not clear to me that the plant was used as a herbal remedy for athletes foot before this, there is a report from 1991 recommending the water steeped in the leaves for "athletes foot and ringworm" (2), but this use may be derived from the scientific finding mentioned.

There is a report from 1848 (1,2) stating Maori used the sap for "scrofulous sores and ringworm" which could include athlete's foot. Perhaps this disease was not even present in Pre-European Maori society or early Maori footwear may not have provided a conducive environment, so it was not an issue.

This plant has the ability to grow under the full shade of larger canopy trees, worth considering as a rare full shade crop. I've nibbled and swallowed very small quantities of the soft young leaves form time to time, even though I've found no reports they are edible (or toxic). They have a mild, pleasant, slightly peppery flavor, not at all bitter like the reportedly edible young leaves of the related Five Finger (Pseudopanax arboreus or Whauwhaupaku) (3) which I enjoy regularly.

An interesting thing I happened to notice about Five Finger is a transparent jelly which can sometimes be found in reasonable quantities on the stem. I don't know what it is, exactly when or why it's there, similar exudations occur on other plants after injury from insect attack, perhaps that's it. The jelly tastes exactly the same as the leaves, bitter but interesting. I've ingesting very small amounts from time to time, finally quite a bit on one occasion, it appears harmless. Seems to me it might have a future as an interesting & unusual food if safety could be determined for sure and a way of inducing/controlling jelly production could be found.

I also tried the easily eaten soft young leaves and stems of the highly attractive Pseudopanax laetus, both raw and cooked they produced a mild burning sensation at the top of the throat, won't be the first time I've been burned by beauty.

1. New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Brooker, Cambie, Cooper 1981 pg 95
2. Maori Healing and Herbal. Riley 1994 pg 330
3. A Field Guide to the Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Crowe. 1981 pg 153



Saturday, August 29, 2015

Epiphytic Watercress ??





















 Seems a little odd. A Watercress seeding apparently growing as an epiphyte (air plant) in a bottomless free-draining container suspended on a house, alongside an epiphytic cactus.

Perhaps it likes combination of good aeration (they don't like sitting in poorly aerated water) and high rainfall over winter. It found it's way up there from a tub below with watercress in it. The seedling is of course small, I'd be surprised if it reaches a useful size.

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Cooking Tiger Worms So Not Tough & Rubbery

The following is the result of experiments with cooking Tiger Worms (Eisenia fetida, also called Compost Worms) so they will not be tough & rubbery as they are after being prepared  by boiling alone. I also wanted to bypass giving them cornmeal to purge them which all recipes I could find recommend.







Step 1: Collecting worms from worm farm (on right: brand name Worm Cafe). Often worms will bunch together in "orgies" making collection easier. Mmmmmm yummy.




Step 2. Wash worms using a sieve, pick out debris if there is any. 


Step 3. Place worms in a container. This is a commercial plastic container for supplying live mealworms, presumably small holes in the lid are an effective & necessary way of providing fresh air for breathing. I then put the container in a dark place, as these worms hate light, for 4 days. I wash the worms once a day so they don't eat their own waste (I don't know if this is necessary, they don't seem to be interested in doing this from my observation, but an easy precaution to take). 

I simply fasted the worms, didn't give them cornmeal as usually recommended, I'm interested in eating worms for maximizing self-sufficiency, buying cornmeal from a shop seemed a silly excess for someone trying to be reasonably self-sufficient.


Step 4. Place worms in pot of boiling water for 5-15 minutes ( based on fact that 3-4 minutes recommended time for boiling untreated water to kill all potentially harmful micro-organisms). Presumably just putting worms in boiling water is considered a sufficiently humane way to dispatch them, it's done with lobsters, they can be frozen first if not.



Step 5. After boiling the worms can be eaten but they are tough, rubbery and average in flavor.



Step 6.  I roasted them for 15-20 minutes at 220 C (428 F) on an oven tray, without water or oil, until they were crispy. You should probably check often for when they're just getting crisp. They are no longer rubbery at this stage, easily eaten, tasting something like prawns in my opinion. The prawn-like flavor and crispy texture combine to make them very similar to prawn crackers, I think good enough to consider as a regular food item, though I've only done it twice so far. 

They do have a lingering smokey, perhaps earthy, strong cheesy, aftertaste that stays in the mouth for over an hour. Not an unpleasant taste but a little odd, a potential drawback worth trying to eliminate - unless it becomes an acquired taste, there are stranger ones. I will probably experiment with eating something after it to "clear the palate". 

I also fried some in olive oil, this also made them crispy, they tasted more like octopus this way, not as nice I thought. Also buying olive oil seemed an unnecessary, avoidable, dependence for someone trying to maximize self-sufficiency.  The aftertaste seemed to be even stronger with frying.

Final dish consisted of more roast worms than the few pictured above, I was enjoying them so much I forgot to take the photo till almost too late.

Conclusion

Tiger worms may be worth considering as a way of providing your own  protein rich and tasty meat if you live on a small, e.g., suburban, section. Because they eat decomposing material, apparently usually at the bottom, or close to the bottom, of the food chain, they are presumably amongst the most energy efficient ways of producing meat possible (I actually find food chain hierarchies a little confusing, I assume if they're eating something from the "bottom" of the food chain like a plant they are energy efficient, if they're eating something at the "top" like a dead person, which is perfectly natural of course, they are inefficient, I don't know if they would then also be considered to be at the "top".) Presumably able to produce more meat in a given amount of space than carnivores or perhaps even herbivores. Certainly the reproduction rate of Tiger Worms is legendary, especially if well managed. Other edible consumers of decomposing material such as the American Cockroach and meal worms, also known for very high reproduction rates, are presumably worth trying for the super-efficient small-scale production of meat.

I suppose vegetarianism may be the most energy efficient way to maximize food production in a small space, which I might resort to, though these creature do use a resource plants don't and provide a byproduct plants can use. It's possible creatures like this combined with plants are more productive than plants alone and they do use spaces plants don't, namely dark places.

Also if you're on a small section, in a suburb say, probably no one will seriously object to you eating these. They'll think it's disgusting but that's probably better than being known for slaughtering (invariably cute) micro-livestock likely to be available like bunnies, turtles, mice, axolotls and birds. 

People in the country wont care a toss about you slaughtering animals for food but city dwellers, especially children, will probably have more trouble with it. Reminding them their insulated industrial way of life is probably slaughtering the planet is unlikely to help.  




Ref: The Worm Book. Loren Nancarrow and Janet Hogan Taylor. 1998. Ten Speed Press.










Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Cottage Research: Killing Tradescantia fluminensis

The following is the result of about 6 months of experimentation in organic, quick and simple ways of killing the incredibly resilient weed Tradescantia fluminensis (Wandering Willy, Wandering Jew) a serious pest here in Wellington, New Zealand. My aim was to find a way of killing the plant once it has been weeded/collected so that it can then be recycled back into the garden as compost or as mulch, this is not  an attempt to find an organic way of killing the plant on the ground where it grows.

The best method was found to be immersing the weed in a tub filled with a combination of worm castings from worm farms, the liquid produced from the worm farms, combined with up to 1/3 water (to make the solution go further). The Tradesantia is then weighed down so that it is totally submerged and left in the solution for 10 days, the solution being stirred every few days as it tends to settle. After 10 days the weed is laid out in the sun for 3 days, it is then completely dead in my experience.


1. Tradescantia fluminensis before treatment...the world's its oyster.

2. Tradescantia fluminensis placed in a large plastic tub filled with approx 1/3 worm castings, 1/3 liquid form worm farms 1/3 water stirred to become a thick dark mixture.  The less water the better.

3. Tradescantia fluminensis weighed down with brick so that it totally submerged.

4. Tradescantia submerged. So far this solution has not produced any notable smell, a consideration in urban areas . This was expected as worm farms are often kept indoors and usually produce no noticeable odour. 

5. Tradescantia left for at least 10 days, covered to protect from rain. Stirring from time to time was assumed to be necessary because solution settles becoming fairly clear near surface, I did not try not stirring it (you could experiment with shorter periods if in a hurry, I found after 5-7 days about 1% of plants survived, these could be put back in for another go since they like it so much).
6. Wandering Willy after removal from tub, the leaves are gone/dead but note the stems are still green. 

7. After 2-3 days in the sun the Tradescantia remains are completely dead. It seems to be necessary to keep the stems completely dry, in experiments some stems soaked in water for 10 minutes revived. In limited experiments drying indoors away from sunlight appears to be effective but takes much longer.


Use of Remains in Garden.
I have not yet experimented much with safety/appropriateness of using the resulting dry remains (presumably mainly carbon) directly in the garden. It is usually recommended worm castings should be added as a thin mulch in the garden (too much kills or weakens most plants) the same advice probably goes for this stuff , though I dried a reasonably thick layer of it out on top of other vegetation, it had no noticeable effect at all. I suppose a build-up of toxins over a long time might be possible if used over & over in same place, but it being washed away by rain seems just as likely.  

A compost heap is recommended in various places on the net as one of the few safe places to dispose of the liquid from worm farms. From this I'd infer putting the Tradescantia remains into the compost heap, especially in high rainfall areas, is probably fine.
 
I also tried putting a few remains into the worm farm, the worms seem much less enthusiastic about eating it than Tradescantia that had been through a blender, but after about a month it was gone, apparently largely with help from other minute beetle-like organisms also in the worm farm. Presumably the worms weren't crazy about eating it either because it was covered in their own waste or because it was so dry decomposition took place much more slowly (tiger worms eat rotting stuff). Soaking remains in water before putting it into the worm farm seemed to result in it being consumed/destroyed about twice as quickly, which might support either theory. More experimentation is needed here. 
 
Why does it work?

I don't know why it works. Supposedly worm castings are high in salts, this might explain why they dry up so quickly when left in the sun. Apparently worm waste is somewhat, but not very, high in nitrogen, reportedly nitrogen from human or animal urination on or near plants can sometimes kill them. 





Footnote: Some rejected or abandoned means of killing Wandering Willy.

Commercial Blender- effective but very noisy, fairly slow & tedious unless you can find a huge blender.

Chopping by hand with knife into very small pieces (less than 1 cm) effective but not as effective as blender, seem to re-sprout under certain unclear circumstances, probably access to water, very slow though can be calming

Placing in black plastic bags in Sun to "cook"  ugly, not practical if you have limited space, may take years, same if bags kept in shade or complete dark.

Immersion in water. Effective but may take many months.  

Cooking in conventional oven. Only effective for very small quantities, large, practical quantities do not cook evenly.  Same would go for a specially made solar oven which a few people have thought of on the net but no one's tried it seems.

Immersion  in boiling water. As little as 10 seconds in boiling water kills Wandering Willy but this only works with small amounts held under with tongs, large amounts take much longer to return to boil. Protective clothing probably needed if repeatedly placing weed in boiling water over long period.

Immersion in human urine. More effective than worm castings and liquid mix, as little as 2 days soaking kills Wandering Jew, though 3-6 days better. Treated weeds also need to be kept away from water for several days once removed to dry out, otherwise they may recover. This experiment was small scale with small sections of weed, also source of urine was a meat eater, supposedly more toxic/high nitrogen. Urine smells and is likely to be unacceptable to neighbors and possibly officials, though this may not be true absolutely everywhere or in a more enlightened greener future. Unknown disease potential.   

Worm castings & worm liquid used separately. I found combing worm castings (with water) and worm farm liquid was considerably more effective than using either on it's own but experimentation was not especially extensive & could be explored more.

Food for humans & animals. A number of animals will reportedly eat Wandering Willy including chocks and Guinea Pigs. Aside from the fact that the nutritional content of this plant seems to be unknown, I did not try this method because of lack of space & aversion to slaughtering animals. Apparently one solitary source (The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America(Couplan 1998)) states the young leaves can be eaten by humans when cooked. They are palatable in my experience, but that still leaves old stems and leaves, in addition to likely oversupply of edible parts.

Hot or Fast Compost Heaps, with very high ratio of carbon to nitrogen materials, turned daily or very frequently, have been recommended on the net for this plant & probably work (normal compost heaps are of course completely ineffective against this plant). I haven't attempted fast heaps as they seem like a fine art & it would be labour intensive turning large amounts of compost made from this prolific weed. Also Tradescantia is "green"/high in nitrogen so about 30 times as much "dry"/carbon materials would need to go with it to make the heap work, which would probably not be readily available. 


Finally a few interesting facts stumbled over: 

Spraying all of the above fluids onto Tradescantia using a commercial trigger sprayer had absolutely no effect, both on the ground where it was growing and indoors with cuttings, it's possible non-organic commercial spays are the only way of killing it where it's growing. 

I had to tell my dog not to lick the worm casting mix off the weeds placed in the sun, she really seemed to like it. I didn't notice her vomiting later on or becoming sick, perhaps worm farm waste could be a temporary emergency dog food if supplies are cut of in a disaster, dogs are well known for eating various kinds of feces, apparently without harm. I'm saying maybe this is a possibility, I have no expertise in this area & am not qualified to make any recommendations.

Also my pigeons started using the dried Tradescantia as straw to make nests once it had been dead for a week or two.  







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